Founding of the Fascist Party
Mussolini founds Fasci italiani di combattimento, which will later become the Fascist party, at a gathering in Piazza San Sepolcro, Milan.
23 Mar, 1919
Fascists set fire to Milan headquarters of Socialist newspaper Avanti.
15 Apr, 1919
Socialists (PSI) have the majority with 155 seats, Catholic (PPI) obtain 100 seats, the Fascists obtain no seats.
16 Nov, 1919
The Italian Communist Party (PCI) is founded
In Livorno, the Italian Communist Party is founded under the leadership of Antonio Gramsci.
21 Jan, 1921
The National Bloc, including Fascists, this time has the majority with 275 seats, while PSI has 122 and PPI 107.
15 May, 1921
Founding of the PNF
Mussolini founds the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF).
09 Nov, 1921
March on Rome
King Vittorio Emanuele III appoints Mussolini Prime Minister.
28 - 30 Oct, 1922
Implementation of Legge Acerbo
Legge Acerbo is implemented, which grants two thirds of the seats in Parliament to the party with relative majority.
23 Jul, 1923
First general election under Mussolini's rule.
The Fascist list (also known as ‘Listone’) obtains 374 seats, while all the other parties are relegated to sheer minority (PPI 39, PSU 24, PSI 22, PCdI 19, Liberals 15).
06 Apr, 1924
Social-democrat deputy Giacomo Matteotti denounces Fascist violent intimidating actions and vote-rigging during the elections. After about 10 days he is kidnapped and killed by a Fascist squad.
May - Jun, 1924
Freedom of Press laws
Law against freedom of the press is passed. Censorship is introduced and independent newspapers are shut down.
Restrictive laws introduced
A set of restrictive laws are passed: abolition of the right to strike, all opposition parties and non-Fascist trade unions are outlawed. Introduction of internal exile (confino) and Special Tribunals for political crimes.
May - Jun, 1926
Discorso dell’Ascensione with Mussolini’s encouragement to ‘andare al popolo’.
Communist leaders are judged by Special Tribunal. Gramsci and others are sentenced to 20 years of prison.
Futurists and flying
Italo Balbo, head of the Italian Royal Air Force, starts his air ventures which feed the fascination of the Italian population and Italian artists, especially Futurists, with airplanes and the theme of flying.
May - Jun, 1928
Libro unico di testo law passed
The law for the libro unico di testo for elementary school is passed.
Reconciliation between the regime and the Catholic Church. The ‘Roman Question’ is solved with the establishment of the State of Vatican City on 11 February 1929 at the Palazzo del Laterano in Rome.
11 Feb, 1929
Chamber of Deputies election
Plebiscitary election of members of the Chamber of Deputies, in which voters could only vote ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to a list of 400 deputies proposed by the Grand Council. More than 98 % of voters approved the list.
24 Mar, 1929
Forming of the National Council of Corporations
Mussolini founds the National Council of Corporations.
22 Apr, 1930
Italy - Brasil, led by Italo Balbo.
17 Dec, 1930 - 15 Jan, 1931
Occupation of Cufra
Italians, led by Rodolfo Graziani, occupy Cufra in Libya.
Academics are forced to swear loyalty oath to Fascism. Only 11 refuse.
Anticolonial leader hanged
Libyan anticolonial leader Omar al-Mukhtar is hanged.
Agro Pontino land reclamation
Beginning of works of land reclamation in the Agro Pontino region.
Celebration of rise to power
Celebrations for the 10th anniversary of March on Rome and Fascist rise to power.
Transatlantic cruise for the Decennale: Orbetello - Chicago - New York - Rome by Italo Balbo and 24 seaplanes.
Soviet-Italian non-aggression pact.
02 Sep, 1933
Meeting with Hitler
First meeting between Mussolini and Hitler in Venice.
14 - 15 Jun, 1934
Spanish Civil War
Civil war breaks out in Spain. Mussolini supports Francisco Franco and sends military aid.
Invasion of Ethiopia
The League of Nations condemns the invasion.
05 Oct, 1935
Gold donation for war
Italians are invited to donate gold to contribute to the war effort in Ethiopia. Campaign for economic autarky.
Fascist troops occupy Addis Abeba and Empire is proclaimed.
Rome - Berlin axis
21 Oct, 1936
Antonio Gramsci dies
27 Apr, 1937
Ministero della cultura popolare (Minculpop) is founded.
Italy - Germany alliance
Mussolini travels to Germany. Alliance between Italy and Germany is consolidated.
Opera Nazionale Balilla becomes Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL) and thus framed within the PNF.
Italy enters the Anticomintern pact which unites Italy, Germany and Japan against USSR.
Hitler visits Rome.
Manifesto della razza is published and the racial laws promulgated.
14 Jun, 1938
The publication of the journal La difesa della razza begins.
Racial laws against Jews introduced.
Sep - Dec, 1938
World War 2
Beginning of WWII. Vittorio Emanuele III is crowned King of Albania.
Italy enters the war
Italy enters WWII on Nazi side. Invasion of Greece and African campaign.
Law of the 2%
The 2% of the total amount of public money destined to public buildings has to be used to embellish them.
Start of the Italian campaign in Russia, which will end in 1943.
1941 - 1943
Battle of Stalingrad.
Allied invasion of Sicily
The allied forces land in Sicily.
09 - 10 Jun, 1943
The Regime ends
25 July, all of the Fascist regime.
25 Jul, 1943
8 September, armistice with Allies signed by king Vittorio Emanuele III and Marshall Pietro Badoglio.
08 Sep, 1943