• Founding of the Fascist Party

    Mussolini founds Fasci italiani di combattimento, which will later become the Fascist party, at a gathering in Piazza San Sepolcro, Milan.

    23 Mar, 1919
  • Fascist fire

    Fascists set fire to Milan headquarters of Socialist newspaper Avanti.

    15 Apr, 1919
  • General Election

    Socialists (PSI) have the majority with 155 seats, Catholic (PPI) obtain 100 seats, the Fascists obtain no seats.

    16 Nov, 1919
  • The Italian Communist Party (PCI) is founded

    In Livorno, the Italian Communist Party is founded under the leadership of Antonio Gramsci.

    21 Jan, 1921
  • General Election

    The National Bloc, including Fascists, this time has the majority with 275 seats, while PSI has 122 and PPI 107.

    15 May, 1921
  • Founding of the PNF

    Mussolini founds the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF).

    09 Nov, 1921
  • March on Rome

    King Vittorio Emanuele III appoints Mussolini Prime Minister.

    28 - 30 Oct, 1922
  • Implementation of Legge Acerbo

    Legge Acerbo is implemented, which grants two thirds of the seats in Parliament to the party with relative majority.

    23 Jul, 1923
  • First general election under Mussolini's rule.

    The Fascist list (also known as ‘Listone’) obtains 374 seats, while all the other parties are relegated to sheer minority (PPI 39, PSU 24, PSI 22, PCdI 19, Liberals 15).

    06 Apr, 1924
  • Social-Democrat kidnapping

    Social-democrat deputy Giacomo Matteotti denounces Fascist violent intimidating actions and vote-rigging during the elections. After about 10 days he is kidnapped and killed by a Fascist squad.

    May - Jun, 1924
  • Freedom of Press laws

    Law against freedom of the press is passed. Censorship is introduced and independent newspapers are shut down.

  • Restrictive laws introduced

    A set of restrictive laws are passed: abolition of the right to strike, all opposition parties and non-Fascist trade unions are outlawed. Introduction of internal exile (confino) and Special Tribunals for political crimes.

    May - Jun, 1926
  • Discorso dell'Ascensione

    Discorso dell’Ascensione with Mussolini’s encouragement to ‘andare al popolo’.

  • Special Tribunals

    Communist leaders are judged by Special Tribunal. Gramsci and others are sentenced to 20 years of prison.

  • Futurists and flying

    Italo Balbo, head of the Italian Royal Air Force, starts his air ventures which feed the fascination of the Italian population and Italian artists, especially Futurists, with airplanes and the theme of flying.

    May - Jun, 1928
  • Libro unico di testo law passed

    The law for the libro unico di testo for elementary school is passed.

  • Lacteran Pacts

    Reconciliation between the regime and the Catholic Church. The ‘Roman Question’ is solved with the establishment of the State of Vatican City on 11 February 1929 at the Palazzo del Laterano in Rome.

    11 Feb, 1929
  • Chamber of Deputies election

    Plebiscitary election of members of the Chamber of Deputies, in which voters could only vote ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to a list of 400 deputies proposed by the Grand Council. More than 98 % of voters approved the list.

    24 Mar, 1929
  • Forming of the National Council of Corporations

    Mussolini founds the National Council of Corporations.

    22 Apr, 1930
  • Cruise

    Italy - Brasil, led by Italo Balbo.

    17 Dec, 1930 - 15 Jan, 1931
  • Occupation of Cufra

    Italians, led by Rodolfo Graziani, occupy Cufra in Libya.

    Jan, 1931
  • Fascism Oath

    Academics are forced to swear loyalty oath to Fascism. Only 11 refuse.

    Aug, 1931
  • Anticolonial leader hanged

    Libyan anticolonial leader Omar al-Mukhtar is hanged.

    Sep, 1931
  • Agro Pontino land reclamation

    Beginning of works of land reclamation in the Agro Pontino region.

    Nov, 1931
  • Celebration of rise to power

    Celebrations for the 10th anniversary of March on Rome and Fascist rise to power.

  • Transatlantic Cruise

    Transatlantic cruise for the Decennale: Orbetello - Chicago - New York - Rome by Italo Balbo and 24 seaplanes.

  • Non-aggression pact

    Soviet-Italian non-aggression pact.

    02 Sep, 1933
  • Meeting with Hitler

    First meeting between Mussolini and Hitler in Venice.

    14 - 15 Jun, 1934
  • Spanish Civil War

    Civil war breaks out in Spain. Mussolini supports Francisco Franco and sends military aid.

    Jul, 1935
  • Invasion of Ethiopia

    The League of Nations condemns the invasion.

    05 Oct, 1935
  • Gold donation for war

    Italians are invited to donate gold to contribute to the war effort in Ethiopia. Campaign for economic autarky.

    Dec, 1935
  • Fascist occupation

    Fascist troops occupy Addis Abeba and Empire is proclaimed.

  • Axis

    Rome - Berlin axis

    21 Oct, 1936
  • Obituary

    Antonio Gramsci dies

    27 Apr, 1937
  • Minculpop founded

    Ministero della cultura popolare (Minculpop) is founded.

    Jun, 1937
  • Italy - Germany alliance

    Mussolini travels to Germany. Alliance between Italy and Germany is consolidated.

    Sep, 1937
  • Opera

    Opera Nazionale Balilla becomes Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL) and thus framed within the PNF.

    Oct, 1937
  • Anticomintem Pact

    Italy enters the Anticomintern pact which unites Italy, Germany and Japan against USSR.

    Nov, 1937
  • Rome visit

    Hitler visits Rome.

    May, 1938
  • Manifesto published

    Manifesto della razza is published and the racial laws promulgated.

    14 Jun, 1938
  • Journal published

    The publication of the journal La difesa della razza begins.

    Aug, 1938
  • Jewish laws

    Racial laws against Jews introduced.

    Sep - Dec, 1938
  • World War 2

    Beginning of WWII. Vittorio Emanuele III is crowned King of Albania.

  • Italy enters the war

    Italy enters WWII on Nazi side. Invasion of Greece and African campaign.

  • Law of the 2%

    The 2% of the total amount of public money destined to public buildings has to be used to embellish them.

  • Italian campaign

    Start of the Italian campaign in Russia, which will end in 1943.

    1941 - 1943
  • Stalingrad

    Battle of Stalingrad.

  • Allied invasion of Sicily

    The allied forces land in Sicily.

    09 - 10 Jun, 1943
  • The Regime ends

    25 July, all of the Fascist regime.

    25 Jul, 1943
  • Armistice

    8 September, armistice with Allies signed by king Vittorio Emanuele III and Marshall Pietro Badoglio.

    08 Sep, 1943