• House of Art

    Casa d’arte Bragaglia, Rome.

    1918 - 1930
  • Journals founded

    Foundation of journals La Ronda and Valori Plastici, promoting a ‘return to order’ after the disorder and destruction created by the avant-gardes.

  • Founding of the Fascist Party

    Mussolini founds Fasci italiani di combattimento, which will later become the Fascist party, at a gathering in Piazza San Sepolcro, Milan.

    23 Mar, 1919
  • Fascist fire

    Fascists set fire to Milan headquarters of Socialist newspaper Avanti.

    15 Apr, 1919
  • General Election

    Socialists (PSI) have the majority with 155 seats, Catholic (PPI) obtain 100 seats, the Fascists obtain no seats.

    16 Nov, 1919
  • Manifesto signing

    Contro tutti i ritorni in pittura, a Manifesto signed by Achille Funi, Mario Sironi, Leonardo Dudreville and Luigi Russolo to propose a return to construction in the visual arts after the end of Futurism.

  • The Italian Communist Party (PCI) is founded

    In Livorno, the Italian Communist Party is founded under the leadership of Antonio Gramsci.

    21 Jan, 1921
  • I Biennal in Rome

    The I Biennale romana takes place at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni.

    31 Mar - 30 Jun, 1921
  • General Election

    The National Bloc, including Fascists, this time has the majority with 275 seats, while PSI has 122 and PPI 107.

    15 May, 1921
  • Founding of the PNF

    Mussolini founds the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF).

    09 Nov, 1921
  • Teatro degli Indipendenti founded

    Anton Giulio Bragaglia founds the Teatro degli Indipendenti in Rome, promoting and spreading avant-garde theatre in Italy.

  • Manifesto published

    Manifesto dell’arte meccanica futurista published on La nuova Lacerba, signed by Ivo Pannaggi, Vinicio Paladini and Enrico Prampolini.

    22 Jun, 1922
  • March on Rome

    King Vittorio Emanuele III appoints Mussolini Prime Minister.

    28 - 30 Oct, 1922
  • Mussolini’s speech at the Pesaro art Gallery

    Mussolini’s speech at the Pesaro art Gallery in Milan on 26 March 1923 the occasion of the foundation of the Novecento italiano movement ‘Sette pittori del Novecento’.

    26 Mar, 1923
  • Implementation of Legge Acerbo

    Legge Acerbo is implemented, which grants two thirds of the seats in Parliament to the party with relative majority.

    23 Jul, 1923
  • Venice Biennial

    Venice Biennial, Novecento artists stand out and receive praise.

  • Teatro dell’Arte di Roma founded

    Luigi Pirandello is nominated Director of the Teatro dell’Arte in Rome.

  • First general election under Mussolini's rule.

    The Fascist list (also known as ‘Listone’) obtains 374 seats, while all the other parties are relegated to sheer minority (PPI 39, PSU 24, PSI 22, PCdI 19, Liberals 15).

    06 Apr, 1924
  • Social-Democrat kidnapping

    Social-democrat deputy Giacomo Matteotti denounces Fascist violent intimidating actions and vote-rigging during the elections. After about 10 days he is kidnapped and killed by a Fascist squad.

    May - Jun, 1924
  • First Futurist Congress

    At the Teatreo del Verme, with 300 delegates, the Primo Congresso Futurista is held.

    23 - 25 Nov, 1924
  • Freedom of Press laws

    Law against freedom of the press is passed. Censorship is introduced and independent newspapers are shut down.

  • Fascist Manifesto

    Manifesto of Fascist Intellectuals which establishes the ideological and intellectual foundations of Fascism, and identifies in the connection between culture and politics one of the hallmarks and strengths of Fascism. It was drafted by the philosopher Giovanni Gentile after the first Conference of Fascist Culture held in Bologna in the same year, and signed by several notable intellectuals, including Luigi Pirandello, Curzio Malaparte, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Margherita Sarfatti, Ardengo Soffici, and Giuseppe Ungaretti.

    21 Apr, 1925
  • Anti-Fascist Manifesto written

    Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals written by Benedetto Croce.

    30 Apr, 1925
  • Istituto Luce creation

    Creation of the Istituto Luce, which will produce and distribute countless documentaries and newsreels used by the regime as a crucial instrument for propaganda.

    Nov, 1925
  • Novecento movement - first exhibition

    14 February-March, first exhibition of the Novecento Movement in Milan, held at the Palazzo della Permanent, Galleria Pesaro, inaugurated with an official speech by Benito Mussolini.

  • State Art movement born

    In a speech given at the University of Perugia, Mussolini calls for an ‘arte di stato’ (State art), which has to be both traditional and modern. This ambiguity leaves room for the struggles for hegemony of different movements.

  • Novecento journal starts

    The journal Novecento, directed by Bontempelli and Malaparte, starts being issued.

  • Gruppo 7 established

    Establishment of ‘Gruppo 7’ by architect Carlo Emilio Rava, gathering rationalist architects Luigi Figini, Gino Pollini, Guido Frette, Sebastiano Larco, Giuseppe Terragni, Ubaldo Castagnoli, and Adalberto Libera.

  • Mussolini founds Istituto Nazionale per la Rappresentazione dei Drammi di Gabriele D’Annunzio

    Mussolini funds the foundation of the Istituto Nazionale per la Rappresentazione dei Drammi di Gabriele D’Annunzio, which will be inaugurated the following year with an incredibly successful performance of La figlia di Iorio, directed by Giovacchino Forzano.

  • Fascist art debate

    Debate on Fascist art on the journal Critica Fascista (1923-1943). Intellectuals are invited to share their ideas on what fascist art should be.

    1926 - 1927
  • 900. Cahier d’Italie et d’Europe founded in Rome

    The journal 900. Cahier d’Italie et d’Europe is founded in Rome by Massimo Bontempelli and Curzio Malaparte.

  • Restrictive laws introduced

    A set of restrictive laws are passed: abolition of the right to strike, all opposition parties and non-Fascist trade unions are outlawed. Introduction of internal exile (confino) and Special Tribunals for political crimes.

    May - Jun, 1926
  • Discorso dell'Ascensione

    Discorso dell’Ascensione with Mussolini’s encouragement to ‘andare al popolo’.

  • Prizes

    The Mussolini Prize (Academy of Italy, 1931), the Viareggio Prize (1930), and the Bagutta Prize (1927).

    1927 - 1930
  • Special Tribunals

    Communist leaders are judged by Special Tribunal. Gramsci and others are sentenced to 20 years of prison.

  • 'Futurist House' founded

    Fortunato Depero moves to New York for two years. He founds there a ‘Futurist House’.

  • Galleria Bardi founded

    Pier Maria Bardi founds the Galleria Bardi in Milan.

  • Exhibition of Rationalist Architecture

    First Italian Exhibition of Rationalist Architecture in Rome, promoted by Adalberto Libera and Gaetano Minnucci. Foundation of the MIAR (Movimento Italiano per l'Architettura Razionale).

  • Inchiesta

    Inchiesta on the arts and the Corporations in Critica Fascista.

  • XVI Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte held in Venice (the Venice Biennal)

    The Venice Biennale gives significant space to Italian Futurism. President: Pietro Orsi. Secretary: Antonio Maraini.

    05 - 10 Jan, 1928
  • Futurists and flying

    Italo Balbo, head of the Italian Royal Air Force, starts his air ventures which feed the fascination of the Italian population and Italian artists, especially Futurists, with airplanes and the theme of flying.

    May - Jun, 1928
  • Sindacato regionale fascista Belle Arti, Milan

    I Mostra regionale d'arte lombarda, held at the Palazzo della Permanente. Honorary President: Giuseppe Bottai. President: Cipriano Efisio Oppo.

    18 Nov - 30 Dec, 1928
  • Libro unico di testo law passed

    The law for the libro unico di testo for elementary school is passed.

  • Instituto Treccani founded

    The Istituto Treccani, which becomes Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana in 1933, is founded by industrialist and published Giovanni Treccani and by philosopher Giovanni Gentile. Between 1929 and 1937 it issues 35 volumes making up the Enciclopedia Italiana, a project of cultural research which saw the involvement of several intellectuals and academics.

    1929 - 1937
  • Manifesto dell'Aeropittura Futurista published

    22nd September, Manifesto dell'Aeropittura Futurista (of Futurist Aeropainting) is published, and signed by Benedetta Cappa, Fortunato Depero, Gerardo Dottori, Fillia, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Enrico Prampolini, Mino Somenzi and Tato.

  • Novecento italiano second exhibition

    March-April, II exhibition of the Novecento italiano movement, held at Palazzo della Permanente, Milan.

  • Lacteran Pacts

    Reconciliation between the regime and the Catholic Church. The ‘Roman Question’ is solved with the establishment of the State of Vatican City on 11 February 1929 at the Palazzo del Laterano in Rome.

    11 Feb, 1929
  • I Exhibition of the Sindacato Laziale Fascista degli Artisti Italiani

    I Mostra del Sindacato Laziale Fascista degli Artisti Italiani is held at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni. Giuseppe Bottai is the honorary President and Cipriano Efisio Oppo the President.

    01 Mar - 30 May, 1929
  • Chamber of Deputies election

    Plebiscitary election of members of the Chamber of Deputies, in which voters could only vote ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to a list of 400 deputies proposed by the Grand Council. More than 98 % of voters approved the list.

    24 Mar, 1929
  • Accademia d'Italia inaugurated

    Inauguration of the Accademia d'Italia in Rome, which will appoint a number of intellectuals as 'accademici' receiving a monthly salary by the regime.

    28 Oct, 1929
  • Venice Biennial taken over

    The Venice Biennial goes from being managed and controlled by the city of Venice to being directly controlled and managed by the regime.

  • Groupt des Sept exhibition

    Groupt des Sept (Campigli, de Chirico, de Pisis, Paresce, Savinio, Severinei and Tozzi) exhibition in Paris organised by Mario Tozzi.

  • XVII Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte held in Venice (the Venice Biennal)

    The Venice Biennale gives again significant space to Italian Futurism with ‘La nuova pittura futurista’. President: Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Secretary: Antonio Maraini. Artists under 30 are admitted.

    Apr - Oct, 1930
  • Manifesto drafted

    Marinetti and Tato draft the Manifesto della Fotografia Futurista (of Futurist Photography) (published in January 1931).

  • Forming of the National Council of Corporations

    Mussolini founds the National Council of Corporations.

    22 Apr, 1930
  • Novecento italiano Exhibition in Argentina

    Novecento italiano exhibition in a Buenos Aires, Los Amigos de arte with 46 artists.

    Sep, 1930
  • Galleria Bardi reopens

    Galleria Bardi reopens as Galleria del Milione directed by Edoardo Persico and owned by the Ghiringhelli brothers. The Gallery will support especially the abstract movement.

    05 Nov, 1930
  • Scipione and Mafai exhibition, Rome

    At the Galleria d’arte di Roma, exhibition of the scuola romana: Scipione and Mario Mafai. Director Pier Maria Bardi.

    08 - 27 Nov, 1930
  • Cruise

    Italy - Brasil, led by Italo Balbo.

    17 Dec, 1930 - 15 Jan, 1931
  • Occupation of Cufra

    Italians, led by Rodolfo Graziani, occupy Cufra in Libya.

    Jan, 1931
  • Manifesto drafted

    Marinetti and Fillia draft the *Manifesto dell’Arte Sacra Futurista (of Futurist Sacred Art).

  • Manifesto written

    Depero writes the Manifesto of Futurism and Advertising Art celebrating advertising as a new modern form of art.

  • Rationalist Architecture second exhibition

    Second Exhibition of Rationalist Architecture, after which rationalists partly lose the support of the regime, as a result of their sheer critique of more traditional forms of architecture, close to the regime. P.M. Bardi writes the Rapporto sull'architettura (per Mussolini) (Report on Architecture (for Mussolini), in which he promotes rationalist architecture as the only architectural style suitable to represent the Fascist regime.

  • I Quadriennale Nazionale d'Arte opens

    3 January-15 June, the first Quadriennale Nazionale d'Arte opens in Rome at Palazzo delle Esposizioni, organised by Cipriano Efisio Oppo and aiming at showcasing national art. President: Enrico di San Martino e Valperga. Secretary: Cipriano Efisio Oppo.

  • Exhibition of Aeropainting

    First Exhibition of Aeropainting held in Rome, 1-10 February. An expanded version of the Manifesto of Aeropittura is published.

    Feb, 1931
  • Italian Film funding

    A law is passed with which the regime officially starts funding Italian films.

    Jun, 1931
  • Fascism Oath

    Academics are forced to swear loyalty oath to Fascism. Only 11 refuse.

    Aug, 1931
  • Anticolonial leader hanged

    Libyan anticolonial leader Omar al-Mukhtar is hanged.

    Sep, 1931
  • Agro Pontino land reclamation

    Beginning of works of land reclamation in the Agro Pontino region.

    Nov, 1931
  • Celebration of rise to power

    Celebrations for the 10th anniversary of March on Rome and Fascist rise to power.

  • Venice Biennial cinema section

    The cinema section of the Venice Biennal is inaugurated (Esposizione internazionale d'arte cinematografica).

  • Doctrine of Fascism published

    Publication of the Doctrine of Fascism (Dottrina del Fascismo) and of the Italian Encyclopoedia (Enciclopedia italiana)

  • '22 Artistes' Exhibition organised

    22 artistes italiens modernes exhibition organised by Mario Tozzi at the Galerie Georges Bernheim in Paris.

  • Railway Station design competition

    In 1932 the competition is open for building the new railway station in Florence. The competition is won by the Gruppo Toscano led by Giovanni Michelucci and the station Santa Maria Novella is built between 1933 and 1935.

    1932 - 1935
  • Venice Biennale  campaign

    The 1932 Biennale in Venice sees a strong anti-Novecento campaign.

  • Design & Building of palace

    Design and building of the palace of Justice in Milan by Marcello Piacentini. Piacentini initiates a massive programme of public art calling numerous leading artists to decorate the building.

    1932 - 1940
  • Gallery closure

    The Galleria di Roma, directed by P.M. Bardi, closes.

  • XVIII Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte held in Venice (the Venice Biennal)

    The Venice Biennale hosts the ‘Mostra dell’Aeropittura e della pittura dei futuristi italiani’. President: Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Secretary: Antonio Maraini.

    May - Nov, 1932
  • Arturo Maraini replaces Cifriano Efisio Oppo

    In July 1932, Oppo leaves his position of secretary of the Union of Fine Arts (Sindacato delle belle arti) to Maraini

    Jul, 1932
  • Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista inaugurated

    Inauguration of the Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista in Rome, celebrating the 10th anniversary of the March on Rome and the Fascist rise to power.

  • Transatlantic Cruise

    Transatlantic cruise for the Decennale: Orbetello - Chicago - New York - Rome by Italo Balbo and 24 seaplanes.

  • V Triennal

    V Triennal (Esposizione Triennale delle arti decorative e industriali modern e dell’architettura moderna), the first to be held at the Palazzo dell’Arte, which architect Giovanni Muzio designed and built in the Parco Sempione in Milan, especially for hosting the exhibition, and for including architecture in the exhibit. Direttorio organizzatore (directors): Carlo Alberto Felice, Giò Ponti, Mario Sironi.

  • Manifesto of Mural Painting

    The Manifesto della Pittura Murale (of Mural Painting) is published in the opening issue of the journal La Colonna, signed by Mario Sironi, Massimo Campigli, Carlo Carrà, and Achille Funi. Colonna is directed by Alberto Savinio and will cease publication in 1934.

  • The Manifesto dell'Architettura futurista

    The Manifesto dell'Architettura futurista (of Futurist Architecture) is drafted..

  • Quadrante published from 1933 to 1936

    Pier Maria Bardi and Massimo Bontempelli start publishing the monthly magazine, Quadrante. Rivista di architettura e cultura, in Milan.

    1933 - 1936
  • Non-aggression pact

    Soviet-Italian non-aggression pact.

    02 Sep, 1933
  • Manifesto Futurista dell'Architettura Aerea written

    Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Angiolo Mazzoni and Mino Somenzi write the Manifesto Futurista dell'Architettura Aerea.

  • La Nuova Antologia competition

    The journal La Nuova Antologia announces a competition for Italian writers to write 'a novel of the fascist time'.

  • New corporate city

    Completion of the works in the new corporate city of Sabaudia (Lazio). 

  • Palazzo del Littorio competition

    Palazzo del Littorio competition.

  • Esposizione dell'aeronautica italiana

    Esposizione dell'aeronautica italiana is held at Palazzo dell'Arte, Milano

  • Meeting with Hitler

    First meeting between Mussolini and Hitler in Venice.

    14 - 15 Jun, 1934
  • Bas-Relief Murals manifesto

    Fillia writes the manifesto Bas-Relief Murals, calling for new buildings to be decorated with murals depicting modern subjects.

    Aug, 1934
  • XIX Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte held in Venice (the Venice Biennal)

    The Venice Biennale hosts the ‘Mostra degli aeropittori futuristi italiani’ curated by Marinetti. President: Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Secretary: Antonio Maraini. Artists are invited personally.

    Oct, 1934
  • II Quadriennale d'Arte Nazionale.

    April, II Quadriennale Nazionale d'Arte, held in Rome at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni. No artistic groups allowed to be exhibited, only Futurism as a movement. President: Enrico di San Martino e Valperga. Secretary: Cipriano Efisio Oppo.

  • University City La Sapienza opens

    Opening of the University City La Sapienza in Rome.

  • The Regime founds film school

    The regime founds an important film school, the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia.

  • Works begin on corporate city

    Beginning of the works in Tresigallo (Ferrara) to build a corporate city in Emilia Romagna.

  • Spanish Civil War

    Civil war breaks out in Spain. Mussolini supports Francisco Franco and sends military aid.

    Jul, 1935
  • Invasion of Ethiopia

    The League of Nations condemns the invasion.

    05 Oct, 1935
  • Gold donation for war

    Italians are invited to donate gold to contribute to the war effort in Ethiopia. Campaign for economic autarky.

    Dec, 1935
  • Fascist occupation

    Fascist troops occupy Addis Abeba and Empire is proclaimed.

  • VI Triennal

    VI Triennale held in Milan, Palazzo dell’arte. Direttorio organizzatore (directors): Carlo Alberto Felice, Giuseppe Pagano, Mario Sironi.

  • Convegno Volta (theatre), Rome.

    Convegno Volta (theatre), Rome.

  • Axis

    Rome - Berlin axis

    21 Oct, 1936
  • Mostra Augustea della Romanità staged

    Mostra Augustea della Romanità staged by Giulio Quirino Giglioli at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni to mark the bi-millennial birth of Emperor Augustusmillennial birth of Emperor Augustus

  • Opening of Cinecittà.

    Opening of Cinecittà.

    21 Apr, 1937
  • Obituary

    Antonio Gramsci dies

    27 Apr, 1937
  • Minculpop founded

    Ministero della cultura popolare (Minculpop) is founded.

    Jun, 1937
  • Italy - Germany alliance

    Mussolini travels to Germany. Alliance between Italy and Germany is consolidated.

    Sep, 1937
  • Opera

    Opera Nazionale Balilla becomes Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL) and thus framed within the PNF.

    Oct, 1937
  • Anticomintem Pact

    Italy enters the Anticomintern pact which unites Italy, Germany and Japan against USSR.

    Nov, 1937
  • Minister for Education gives 2 speeches

    Minister for Education, Bottai gives two speeches: 'Lineamenti di una politica dell'arte' (Venice, 1 June 1938) and 'Direttive per la tutela dell'arte antica e moderna' (Rome, 4 July 1938). On both occasions he stresses the link between arts and politics.

  • Jewish patron leaves Italy

    Jewish Patron of the arts, Margherita Sarfatti, leaves Italy to go to South America.

  • Le Arti founded

    The journal Le Arti is founded (1938-1940).

    1938 - 1940
  • Corrente di vita giovanile is founded

    The journal Corrente di vita giovanile is founded in 1938 to be closed in 1940.

    1938 - 1940
  • Rome visit

    Hitler visits Rome.

    May, 1938
  • XXI Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte held in Venice (the Venice Biennal)

    The Venice Biennale hosts the ‘Mostra dei Futuristi aeropittori di Africa e di Spagna’ curated by Marinetti. President: Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Secretary: Antonio Maraini.

    Jun - Sep, 1938
  • Manifesto published

    Manifesto della razza is published and the racial laws promulgated.

    14 Jun, 1938
  • Journal published

    The publication of the journal La difesa della razza begins.

    Aug, 1938
  • Jewish laws

    Racial laws against Jews introduced.

    Sep - Dec, 1938
  • World War 2

    Beginning of WWII. Vittorio Emanuele III is crowned King of Albania.

  • Bonifica culturale begins

    Beginning of the 'bonifica culturale' which prohibited the publication and distribution of Jewish and anti-fascist authors

  • III Quadriennale d'Arte Nazionale.

    February-July, III Quadriennale, held in Rome at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni. President: Enrico di San Martino e Valperga. Secretary: Cipriano Efisio Oppo.

  • Premio Cremona established

    Giuseppe Farinacci establishes the conservative Premio Cremona.

    1939 - 1941
  • Premio Bergamo established

    Giuseppe Bottai establishes the Premio Bergamo as an opponent of the Premio Cremona, conceiving it as a more progressive prize and less subjected to politics.

    1939 - 1942
  • Exhibition of Italian Contemporary art in New York

    Mostra d’Arte Contemporanea Italiana, Italian Pavillion at the Universal Expo in New York.

  • Mostra d’Arte Contemoranea

    Mostra d’Arte Contemporanea is held at the Palazzo della Permanente in Milan. Issue n.6 of the journal Corrente di vita giovanile is used as exhibition catalogue.

    18 Mar, 1939
  • II Corrente exhibition

    Seconda Mostra di Corrente, held at the Galleria P. Grande in Milan. Enrico Prampolini takes part in the exhibition.

    15 Dec, 1939
  • Italy enters the war

    Italy enters WWII on Nazi side. Invasion of Greece and African campaign.

  • University of Rome design & building

    Design and building of the new University of Rome La Sapienza, led by Marcello Piacentini with the collaboration of many of the most renowned architects of the day.

  • Support of the Arts

    Ufficio per l'arte contemporanea at the Direzione Generale delle Antichità e Belle arti. The Office was responsible for supporting the arts in general and not any individual movement.

  • Primato published

    Publication of the journal Primato. Lettere e arti d’Italia directed by Guiseppe Bottai.

    1940 - 1943
  • Law of the 2%

    The 2% of the total amount of public money destined to public buildings has to be used to embellish them.

  • XXII Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte held in Venice (the Venice Biennal)

    The Venice Biennale hosts the ‘Futurismo italiano. Gliaeropittori e l’aeroritratto simultaneo’ curated by Marinetti. President: Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Secretary: Antonio Maraini.

    May - Oct, 1940
  • Italian campaign

    Start of the Italian campaign in Russia, which will end in 1943.

    1941 - 1943
  • Stalingrad

    Battle of Stalingrad.

  • Decree of February 9

    The Decree of February 9 (D.M. 9. 2.42) rationed the use of paper and forbade new publications as well as the resuming of suspended or suppressed ones.

  • XXIII Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte held in Venice (the Venice Biennal)

    The Venice Biennale hosts the ‘Aeropitture di guerre cosmiche biochimiche sacre documentarie meccaniche espressioni trasfiguratrici dell’infinitamente grande e dell’infinitamente piccolo in velocità voli micidiali maringuera matite di fuoco e dinamismi astratti’ curated by Marinetti with a long accompanying text. The Corrente movement is also represented with Bottai’s endorsement. President: Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Secretary: Antonio Maraini.

    Jun - Sep, 1942
  • IV Quadriannale

    May-July, IV Quadriennale held in Rome at the Palazzo della Permanente. President: Enrico di San Martino e Valperga. Secretary: Cipriano Efisio Oppo.

  • Allied invasion of Sicily

    The allied forces land in Sicily.

    09 - 10 Jun, 1943
  • The Regime ends

    25 July, all of the Fascist regime.

    25 Jul, 1943
  • Anti-fascist exhibition, ‘L’arte contro la barbarie’

    Organised by the left-wing newspaper L’Unità, an anti-fascist art exhibition is held at the Galleria di Roma.

    23 Aug - 05 Sep, 1943
  • Armistice

    8 September, armistice with Allies signed by king Vittorio Emanuele III and Marshall Pietro Badoglio.

    08 Sep, 1943